To advance research in interdisciplinary aerospace vehicle co-design we have three primary research thrusts: 1) at the lowest reactive level, computing tasks can be co-regulated alongside physical system parameters in a closed-loop fashion. This yields robots which are more responsive to external stimuli without the need to engage in lengthy computing to make decisions. This is similar to the “fight or flight” response humans exhibit and is invaluable for survival. 2) At the higher deliberation/planning layer optimal decision making is generally limited to motion and task planning which don’t consider the computation required to calculate the decision. This can infuse awareness into the intelligence of the robot by designing plans to be aware of the computing and physical processes and deliberating on those in addition to its actions, tasks, and motion plan. This is reminiscent of the higher-level deliberation that humans use in which they not only deliberate on the physical world, but also deliberate on their “mind” or emotions and thoughts. 3) Finally, any intelligent system (biological or not) requires monitoring the internal processes to determine how best to have its needs met. In humans this may be the immune system monitoring health markers and responding when it detects disease. For a robot, run-time monitoring of key system parameters, the run-time verification of new and novel plans, and the detection of failures is imperative to enhance long-duration deployment. Advancement in these key areas will create more reliable, energy efficient, and robust aerospace vehicles.